CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE
1.All amino acids do not have the same pH.
2.Allopurinol is a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase.
3.Cellulose cannot be digested by the human body.
4.Certain enzymes have therapeutic usage.
5.Certain lipids are amphipathic in nature.
6.Competitive inhibition is reversible.
7.Each protein has a unique amino acid sequence.
8.Fats and oils even though triglycerides do not have the same saponification number.
9.Glycine is optically inactive.
10.Glycogen is called animal starch.
11.Heat destroys enzyme activity.
12.Km is the signature of an enzyme.
13.Malonate is the inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase.
14.Methotrexate, an analogue of folic acid, acts as an anticancer drug.
15.Mitochondria are the “Power house” of a cell.
16.Nieman Pick’s disease is a lipid disorder.
17.Primary structure of protein determines its biological activity.
18.Primary structure of proteins determines the higher order structure.
19.Reversal of covalent modification of enzyme is a mechanism of regulation.
20.Serum alkaline phosphatase is a non-functional enzyme.
21.Serum level of ALT is an important biochemical pattern in diagnosis of liver disease.
22.Sodium is an important extracellular cation.
23.Sucrose is called an invert sugar.
1.All one carbon forms of folic acid are not interconvertible.
2.Aspirin has an important role other than simple pain killer.
3.Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 and 2 function in different pathways.
4.Carnitine deficiency affects β-oxidation of fatty acids.
5.Carnitine is involved in transfer of long chain fatty acids.
6.Eicosaniods exert their action locally.
7.Excess alcohol causes hypoglycemia.
8.Excess of NH3 is toxic.
9.Folic acid is advised in maternal hyperhomocysteinemia.
10.G-6-PD deficiency leads to hemolysis.
11.HDL is the heaviest lipoprotein.
12.HDL plays a scavenging role.
13.Hereditary galactosemia may cause premature cataract.
14.Histamine is a vasodilator produced from histidine.
15.In case of a patient suffering from Alkaptonuria, urine becomes black.
16.In respiratory chain, instead of 7 ATPs, 3 ATPs are formed.
17.LCAT deficiency can lead to atherosclerosis.
18.Lipids are oxidized in fire of carbohydrates.
19.Low protein diet may cause fatty liver.
20.Muscle glycogen does not contribute to blood sugar level.
21.No lipid synthesis is possible without NADPH2.
22.Osmotic diuresis is a symptom of diabetes.
23.Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of key enzymes are important in regulation of metabolic pathways.
24.PUFA in diet helps in bringing down blood cholesterol level.
25.Pyruvate dehydrogenase is a multienzyme complex.
26.TCA and urea cycle are interrelated.
27.The anti-inflammatory activity of aspirin is based on suicide inhibition.
28.Tyrosine becomes an essential amino acid in phenylketonuria.
29.Tyrosine has to be supplemented although it is not an essential amino acid.
30.Uncouplers disrupt oxidative phosphorylation process.
PROTEINS OF PLASMA AND TISSUES
1.ALA synthase is the rate-limiting enzyme of heme synthesis.
2.Albumin transports important bio-molecules.
3.Antibody and immunoglobulin are different.
4.Bence Jones protein has a special character
5.Albumin and calcium are related.
6.Collagen maturation requires vitamin C.
7.Collagen synthesis is abnormal in copper deficiency.
8.Emphysema is a feature of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
9.IgG is considered the major antibody of the human body.
10.IgM is a primary antibody.
11.IgM is the most abundant antibody in fetus.
12.IgM is very effective in agglutinating bacteria.
13.Lead poisoning is one of the causes of anemia.
14.Oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin and myoglobin are different.
15.Plasma proteins can be used for the differential diagnosis.
1.Addition of antioxidants helps in preserving edible oils.
2.Cooking increases digestibility of food.
3.Dietary fiber is required for optimal health.
4.During reproductive period females do not suffer from heart attack.
5.Fat talks to brain through leptin.
6.Hypocalcemia results in tetany.
7.Intake of raw egg may cause biotin deficiency.
8.Negative nitrogen balance is seen in person suffering from fever.
9.Niacin is synthesized in the body.
10.Nyctalopia is the deficiency manifestation of vitamin A.
11.Pellagra like symptoms appear in Hartnup disease.
12.Pulses’ proteins have higher biological value than that of cereals.
13.Trimethoprim is used as a bactericidal agent.
14.Vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase are interrelated.
15.Vitamin K deficiency leads to hemorrhagic disorders.
1.Bicarbonate buffer is the most effective buffer in blood.
2.In dehydrated patients NaCl is given along with glucose dissolved in water as rehydration therapy.
3.Kidneys are important in maintenance of acid-base balance.
4.Lungs are important in maintenance of acid base balance.
5.RBC neither swell nor shrink in 0.9% sodium chloride solution.
6.Severe vomiting can cause acid-base disturbance in the body.
1.All mutations are not equally harmful.
2.C-AMP is a 2nd messenger.
3.Cancer cells develop resistance against methotrexate.
4.Cistron is important for genetic expression.
5.Degeneracy is one of the characteristic features of genetic code.
6.Even a single DNA molecule is sufficient to detect genetic abnormality by recent technique.
7.Frame shift mutations are more harmful than point mutations.
8.Insulin decreases C-AMP.
9.Okazaki fragments are made during lagging strand synthesis.
10.p53 is an oncosuppressor protein.
11.Restriction endonucleases act as molecular scissors.
12.Restriction endonucleases facilitate diagnosis of genetic diseases.
13.Restriction fragment length polymorphism is a useful genetic marker.
14.Reverse transcriptase is RNA dependent DNA polymerase.
15.RNA can act as a genetic marker.
16.RNA can act as a genetic material.
17.Salvage pathway is more economical then De Novo synthesis.
18.UV rays damage DNA.
19.Xeroderma Pigmentosum is due to a defect in DNA repair mechanism.